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how to use a multimeter
how to test diode
how to use a meter
how to test elecricity
multimeter
how to test voltage
how to test amperage
how to use ohms
ohms
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  • ruRussian
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00:00:00
a multimeter at first could seem
00:00:02
intimidating but by the end of this
00:00:04
video you'll know everything you need to
00:00:06
know to fully use your multimeter from
00:00:09
what every sign means to what they do
00:00:11
we'll also look at some examples and
00:00:13
demonstrations on how each feature could
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be used finally we'll take a quick look
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at different multimeters and compare
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their features to decide which is best
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for
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you now every multimeter has different
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features but there are standard
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measurements and symbols across most
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units
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so let's take a look at that first first
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off we have voltage represented by a
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capital V this will allow you to measure
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voltage of power lines and devices the
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power in your home is alternating
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current also known as AC and is
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represented by a wave sign then we have
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DC current which is also known as direct
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current and this is represented by two
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lines one solid and the other dotted
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you'll usually have two voltage
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selectors on your meter one for
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alternating current and one for direct
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current the most devices that are
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intended to be plugged in or charged
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will have a label indicating their
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voltage and current type this battery
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for example outputs 18 volts direct
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current this jigsa for example has an
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input of 20 volts so let's use our
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multimeter and test this battery at the
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top of the battery we have labels which
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tells us which terminal is which after
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setting our multimeter to voltage direct
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current we then place our red wire on
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the positive and the black one on on the
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negative if the voltage is not matching
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the device requirements there's likely
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something wrong with your battery or
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your device in this case our range is
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pretty good and we have a good battery
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here now alternating current is what
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you'll usually find in the outlets of
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your house so before testing our Outlet
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proceed with Extreme Caution high
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voltage can cause death and serious
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injuries so to test this set your meter
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to voltage alternating current then
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place your probes in the socket when
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placing the probes the other could
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become instantly electrified so do not
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come in contact with the probes after
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placing them in the socket when testing
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deadly high voltage like this many
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recommend just using one hand as opposed
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to two by using two hands you're at risk
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of completing a circuit through your
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chest leaving you at greater risk of
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death from current passing through your
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body depending where you are in the
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world you'll read between 100 and 240
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volts this multimeter shows us the
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results automatically by ranging by
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itself later in the video we'll talk
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about manual range ing multimeters which
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are these that have a bunch of numbers
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our next feature is ohms this is a
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measurement of resistance essentially
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how difficult it is for an electrical
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current to pass through a material if we
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place the probes on a copper wire for
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example we'll get a resistance of nearly
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zero this is because it's very easy for
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current to flow through the copper wire
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if we place the Probe on the rubber
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however we get o meaning open loop this
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is because little to no current can flow
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through the rubber which is why we use
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it to protect the from the wires and we
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use it to insulate wires in other words
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it's very difficult for electricity to
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pass through rubber we then have
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resistors these are devices that help us
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precisely regulate resistance to test
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these again it's quite simple we set our
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meter to ohms and place the probes on
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the leads this resistor for example is
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21,600 ohms we'll talk about letter
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values later on in the video but this is
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21.6 k k meaning Kila so this is
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21,600 ohms an important thing to
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mention is that if you're testing a
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resistor on a circuit for example you
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can and will likely get a false reading
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this is because there's other paths with
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less resistance on the circuit that
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could give you a false reading leading
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you to believe that the resistor is
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damaged so you should always isolate
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what you're testing when possible the
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next common feature is continuity and
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this is one of the simplest and
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surprisingly useful features on a
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multimeter so this feature essentially
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just makes a tone when continuity is
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found with low enough resistance this
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feature can be used for example if we
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have a large row of wire like this and
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we want to verify that the wire inside
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is not broken anywhere now verifying
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that the wire inside is connected and
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functioning is virtually impossible
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without cutting it open except with a
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multimeter using the continuity we
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simply place our leads on each side of
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the wire if we get a tone we can verify
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that this wire is good it's unbroken and
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it's all good within this wire this
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feature is also helpful for finding wire
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positions let's say for example we want
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to know what pin this circuit goes to we
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place the Probe on the circuit and then
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with the other probe we touch each one
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of the pins to see which one it is we'll
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finally get a tone and now we know that
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this pin corresponds to this circuit
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these three features voltage ohms and
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continuity are the most common but we
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have a lot more things that multimeters
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can do next we have capacitance which is
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represented by this symbol capacitors
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are devices that store energy for later
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use in high demand applications to test
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these we set our meter to the option and
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in our case we have to press the
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selector button to switch to capacitance
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here at the top we get a capital f
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meaning farad which is what we need now
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before we test this capacitors are
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extremely dangerous exercise Extreme
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Caution these capacitors can be charged
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with high voltages that are very
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dangerous we have capacitors that are
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both polarized and non-polarized most
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capacitors should be labeled with their
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voltage and capacitance ratings by
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farads now usually farads are measured
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in micro scale so you'll usually have
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this symbol meaning micro this capacitor
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is reading 230 microfarads which is
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pretty standard it will usually have
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some tolerances we then have this one
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which is non-polarized at 7.5
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microfarads with a 5% tolerance if we
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test it we get a reading Which is higher
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but it is within that 5% range moving on
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in our case on the same setting we have
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a diode symbol this is a diode and this
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device simply allows for current to pass
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in One Direction but not the other to
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test this we place our leads on the
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diode and get a reading if we reverse it
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however we should get no reading or open
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loop this diode is working properly as
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voltage can pass in One Direction but
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not the other if you get a reading in
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both directions or no reading in both
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directions then your diode is damaged
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our next feature is Herz or also known
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as frequency this is simply the speed of
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an electrical generator meaning the
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frequency of this alternating curve wave
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depending on where you are in the world
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you'll have somewhere between 50 and 60
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HZ in your outlet and as usual whenever
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working with electricity exercise
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Extreme Caution so what we'll do is
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simply place our leads in the terminals
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of the outlet and we'll get 59.98 Herz
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now this is just barely off the 60 HZ
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standard of the United States many
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multimeters will also say Duty or have a
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percentage sign this is known as duty
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cycle and this tells us what percentage
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of the time there's positive current so
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when an alternating current is spinning
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you'll usually have 50% % on and 50% off
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in this case we have dead on 50% there's
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other applications where you have square
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waves that aren't on 50% of the time
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another common feature is the
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temperature probe this will either be
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represented by Celsius or Fahrenheit or
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a temperature symbol like this this
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one's pretty simple and straightforward
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it tells us either surface or ambient
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temperature meters with this feature
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will usually come with a separate probe
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that we have to connect to our meter and
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this should give us temperature this
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probe should not be wet another less
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common feature is
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HF this stands for hybrid parameter
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forward current gain common emitter it
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essentially measures transistors and in
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this case we have to use an adapter and
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place it on our input we then get our
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diode and have to figure out whether
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it's PNP or npn if we don't know what
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kind it is we look at the number and
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look for the data sheet on this
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transistor and it'll tell us which is
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the emitter base and collector we then
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align our transistor on the adapter and
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connect it to the board this should give
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us a current gain which we could verify
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again on the data sheet clearly this is
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a bit more of a specialized and
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complicated feature but it's good to
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know it's there here at the bottom we
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have amperage to test amperage we have
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two main options which is clamp and in
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series most meters will have a separate
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input for amperage testing this is often
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times because it's fused inside and has
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to take different paths also testing
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amperage in Series has its limitations
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from not exceeding 10 amps to not doing
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it for longer than 10 20 seconds if you
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exceed the limit of your meter a fuse
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inside will pop and you'll need to
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replace it by disassembling the unit and
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changing the
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fuse so to test amperage like this
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you'll have to break the connection of
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the device and reconnect it with your
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probes so I'm going to show you by
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connecting this in series with my power
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line to this charger now exercise
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Extreme Caution and do not repeat this
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demonstration without a thorough
00:08:52
understanding and the necessary safety
00:08:54
precautions so we'll change our probe to
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the amperage setting we'll connect the
00:08:57
wires and complete the loop with the
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meter and our meter will display how
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many amps are being drawn by the device
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and that's how you test amps but a much
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safer way to test amps is with the clamp
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option to test with the clamp you must
00:09:09
isolate one of the wires if you put both
00:09:12
wires in the clamp the charges will
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cancel themselves out and give you no
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results to demonstrate this we'll use
00:09:17
our welder which allows us to PL the
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clamps on the anode or in other words
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the positive wire we could set our
00:09:22
amperage on the device and see if what
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we're getting is the correct amount so
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we'll simply set our meter to amps and
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put the clamp on the PO positive wire
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and that's how we get amperage readings
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from the clamp and of course this is a
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much simpler safer way to read amperage
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another feature common on these clamp
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devices is ncv which is no contact
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voltage this is a setting that the
00:09:42
device will alert you when you approach
00:09:44
voltage with the tip of the device this
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is just an extra safety feature for
00:09:49
finding live wires I wouldn't usually
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rely on this feature and those are the
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most common features on a multimeter but
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there's a few more things we have to
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learn to fully understand everything on
00:09:59
on a meter another important thing to
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learn is measurement units those
00:10:03
measurement units are capital M which is
00:10:05
million capital K which is kilo which is
00:10:08
1,000 lowercase M which is Millie which
00:10:11
is 1 1,000 and this symbol which is
00:10:14
micro which is 1 one millionth rarely
00:10:17
you'll also see a lowercase n meaning
00:10:19
Nano which is 1 one billionth we've
00:10:22
created a multimeter cheat sheet which
00:10:24
we're giving away for free this cheat
00:10:26
sheet has all the essential information
00:10:27
on learning how to use your me met and
00:10:29
it's a quick reference for the values
00:10:30
and what each feature does you can
00:10:32
download this for free in the
00:10:34
description below so by understanding
00:10:36
these measurement units we can Now
00:10:38
understand a lot more things on our
00:10:39
meter for example this is a manual
00:10:42
ranging meter a meter with no numbers is
00:10:44
auto ranging and will automatically
00:10:46
switch between values though these
00:10:48
meters still allow you to manually
00:10:50
select the range with this button but
00:10:52
then we have other meters that don't
00:10:54
have Auto ranging with meters like this
00:10:56
you have to select the correct range to
00:10:58
get a result and as we could see we have
00:11:00
a lot of our units here M for million k
00:11:03
for kilo the symbol for micro the
00:11:05
lowercase M for Millie and so on now
00:11:07
this may seem a bit complicated but
00:11:09
selecting the correct range is not
00:11:11
difficult so let's use our multimeter
00:11:12
and test this battery to test it we
00:11:14
simply set the value at the highest
00:11:16
range we then turn the dial down until
00:11:19
we get a reading if we get a one we've
00:11:21
gone too far and we need to go to a
00:11:23
higher range and that's it it's as
00:11:25
simple as that so now you pretty much
00:11:26
know everything but besides this there's
00:11:28
a few more more quirks and features of
00:11:30
multimeters you should know for example
00:11:32
on many meters you have a Max minimum
00:11:35
and average option when this feature is
00:11:37
activated you simply get displayed the
00:11:39
stored maximum or minimum or average
00:11:42
voltage reached since activating the
00:11:44
feature the hold button pretty simple it
00:11:46
just stops the display where it is
00:11:48
allowing you to hold values for
00:11:49
reference if needed besides this most
00:11:52
meters also have a light which can be
00:11:53
turned on and off and a final thing to
00:11:56
mention is never to exceed the voltage
00:11:58
ratings on your device device now this
00:11:59
is unlikely as most ratings go up to 500
00:12:03
volts and it's rare that you'll ever
00:12:04
work with anything more than that but
00:12:06
it's important to ensure and know the
00:12:08
limits of your meter anyway and finally
00:12:10
how do you select a multimeter to buy
00:12:12
the first thing to consider is what
00:12:14
features are you going to need that were
00:12:15
mentioned another aspect is whether the
00:12:17
meter is true RMS this means root means
00:12:22
Square now some currents can often have
00:12:24
waves that distort the readings and
00:12:25
cause up to a 40% error rate when
00:12:28
reading however meters that have true
00:12:30
RMS correct for this so that's an
00:12:32
important aspect to consider the next
00:12:34
thing to consider is whether your meter
00:12:35
has Auto ranging this feature greatly
00:12:38
increases the ease of use though really
00:12:40
it's not necessary and if you're just
00:12:41
going to occasionally use a meter then
00:12:43
maybe it's okay to go with a less
00:12:45
expensive manual ranging meter now in
00:12:47
the description below I've linked
00:12:49
multiple options from quality to budget
00:12:52
so if you're interested in buying you
00:12:53
can check it out there

Description:

Download free cheat sheet: https://jamesgatlin.com/pages/free-content This is an overview of all the features on a multimeter, and everything you need to know to get started with a multimeter. Amazon high quality fluke 117: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B000O3LUEI?geniuslink=true Inexpensive astro: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B01ISAMUA6?geniuslink=true medium: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B09C6MGD7J?geniuslink=true clamp: https://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/B00AQKIEXY?geniuslink=true

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