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Download "Jet Engine EXPLODES at 32000 Feet | Southwest Airlines Flight 1380"

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00:00:05
The aircraft rolls violently over to the left and panic erupts as the pilots are struggling
00:00:10
to control their aircraft, and the cabin is depressurized.
00:00:13
When the dust settles, the cabin crew looks down through the cabin and realizes, to their horror,
00:00:18
that one of their passengers have been pulled halfway out through a window.
00:00:21
But this is far from the only problem they face at this point.
00:00:24
Stay tuned.
00:00:26
- Actually, I'm in a-- - 100, 50, 40, 30, 20, 10.
00:00:31
- A huge thank you to Skillshare for sponsoring this video.
00:00:34
The story of Southwest Airlines Flight 1380, it's a very fascinating one but also quite complex.
00:00:40
So what we're gonna start with is talk a little bit about the 737-700
00:00:44
and the newly fitted CFM56-7B engines.
00:00:49
The Boeing 737-700 is part of the Next Generation in the 737 family.
00:00:54
And it is built, essentially on the basis on the 737-300.
00:00:58
The improvements that came in the Next Generation family essentially
00:01:01
was a much more efficient wing, but also a brand new set of CFM56 engines
00:01:07
made from General Electric in the United States and SNECMA in France.
00:01:13
Part of the improvements that came with this new engines was that they reduced
00:01:17
the number of fan blades.
00:01:18
In the old engines that was used in the 300, there were 44 fan blades.
00:01:23
And in the new CFM56 engines, there was only 22 wider fan blades.
00:01:28
These fan blades were made from a very strong titanium alloy,
00:01:32
and because of the strength of them, they don't have what we call a finite service life.
00:01:36
Instead, they are removed and inspected for fatigue cracking at regular intervals.
00:01:41
The way that these fan blades are connected to the fan disc,
00:01:44
the fan disc is the center part of the engine, is they have individual slots,
00:01:49
and the lowest part of this fan blade is called a dovetail.
00:01:52
That's what fits in to these slots before they are secured into place.
00:01:58
The next thing I want to explain is how these fan blades which are quite heavy, actually
00:02:02
and spin at a really high speed, which means that they have a lot
00:02:05
of kinetic energy in them
00:02:07
are protected from the rest of the aircraft.
00:02:09
Around the spinning fan is something that we call a containment ring.
00:02:14
This containment ring is made out of Kevlar and other really strong materials.
00:02:18
And it is designed to withstand a fan blade-out event, an FBO event.
00:02:25
The way that we know that it can actually take this
00:02:28
is that during the certification of the engines,
00:02:30
they do something called an FBO test, a fan blade-out test.
00:02:34
Now this test is exactly what it sounds like.
00:02:36
It means that a fully-functioning engine is being put into a testbed,
00:02:40
it is revved up to close to maximum capacity.
00:02:44
And then one of these fan blades are rigged to be released.
00:02:48
When it's released, it is then being tracked and monitored to make sure that the engine,
00:02:52
as a whole, can sustain whatever damage that comes from it.
00:02:56
And the idea is that the containment ring is supposed to take up most of the energy.
00:03:00
And then the forward part of the engine, which is generally the cowling,
00:03:05
we're gonna get to that in a second, can withstand it and will not depart
00:03:09
from the engine, and, of course, other damages.
00:03:12
When the new CFM56 engine for the NG fleet was being developed,
00:03:17
it had to go through all of the required certification testing.
00:03:20
And when it came to the FBO test, there was a couple of assumptions being made.
00:03:25
And one of them was that it wouldn't matter at what point the fan blade will be released.
00:03:31
So the engine manufacturers chose to have it released at a 12 o'clock position,
00:03:35
when the fan blade was straight up.
00:03:38
The engine manufacturers had calculated that part of the fan from the flame blade-out event
00:03:42
could travel forward outside of the containment ring.
00:03:46
And when they had been calculating this and running computer models,
00:03:50
they thought that it's probably going to move forward at a spiral shape.
00:03:56
But the helix angle of that spiral shape should be about 15 degrees.
00:04:00
But when they run that test, it turned out that indeed,
00:04:04
part of the fan blade did travel forward but at a much bigger helix angle,
00:04:08
closer to 26 degrees.
00:04:10
The piece of the fan blade had much greater kinetic energy
00:04:14
when it came outside of the containment ring
00:04:17
into what we call the D-duct assembly which is forward of the containment ring
00:04:22
and that caused a lot of damage.
00:04:23
And because of that, the engine manufacturers had to go back to the drawing board,
00:04:26
they had to recalculate everything
00:04:27
and they had to redesign both parts of the containment ring
00:04:31
and also the forward part of the D-duct assembly
00:04:33
of the engine to make sure that it will be able to take it.
00:04:36
And when they ran the test again, indeed, there was still a little bit
00:04:39
of damage in the D-duct assembly, but the whole unit was still working.
00:04:45
So when you're boarding of 737 and you look out to the engine,
00:04:49
you'll see the big fan and a spinner in the middle.
00:04:52
That's the one that has the spiral on it, but forward of that, a kind of barrel-shaped structure.
00:04:58
And that's the D-duct assembly.
00:05:00
It consists of an inner and an outer barrel and then you have the aerodynamic lip
00:05:05
in the front of the engine.
00:05:07
And on the outside is an aerodynamic fairing
00:05:09
referred to as the engine cowling.
00:05:12
The engine cowling is divided into two pieces
00:05:15
and it has a hinge at the top
00:05:18
and then you have latches at the bottom.
00:05:21
So if engineering, for example, wants to get access to the engine,
00:05:24
they can open up those latches and kind of open the engine cowling
00:05:29
like two wings on the side.
00:05:31
And those cowling pieces is gonna become really important in the story.
00:05:36
On the 17th of April 2018, Southwest Airlines Flight 1380
00:05:40
was a standard domestic passenger flight
00:05:43
that was scheduled to fly from New York LaGuardia Airport
00:05:46
in the United States over towards Dallas Love Airfield.
00:05:49
This was the second scheduled flight for the involved crew of the day.
00:05:53
The flight was completely fully-booked with 144 passengers on board and five crew members.
00:05:59
In charge of the flight was a 56-year-old female captain.
00:06:02
She had been with Southwest Airlines for 24 years when the accident happened.
00:06:06
And she had previous experience flying the A-7 and the F-18 for the US Navy.
00:06:12
She had 11,715 hours of total time and 10,513 in the Boeing 737.
00:06:19
The first officer who was going to be pilot flying for the flight
00:06:22
was also very experienced, is a 44-year old male
00:06:24
with previous experience in the US Air Force,
00:06:27
flying the T-37s, the T-1s and the E-3s airborne warning and control systems.
00:06:34
He had 9,508 hours of total time and 6,927 on the Boeing 737.
00:06:41
So this is a very, very experienced crew we're looking at.
00:06:45
The cabin crew who are also gonna play a really important part in this accident
00:06:48
had been with Southwest Airlines for six and a half, four and two years respectively.
00:06:53
The aircraft that the crew is flying is about 18 years old at the time of the accident
00:06:57
and there was no known technical malfunctions on it
00:07:00
when they took off from LaGuardia.
00:07:02
The crew prepared for the flight just as normal.
00:07:04
The weather was expected to be good, both in LaGuardia and en-route and also in Dallas.
00:07:09
And at time 10:43, they took off from LaGuardia Airport
00:07:13
and started to climb towards Dallas.
00:07:15
The climb up was completely normal.
00:07:16
And at time 10:57, the crew received their clearance to climb to their cruising altitude
00:07:21
of 38,000 feet from air traffic control.
00:07:23
But as their aircraft passed to flight level 320, at 32,000 feet,
00:07:29
something happened in the number one engine
00:07:31
on the left-hand side.
00:07:33
In the dovetail part of fan blade number 13, a small fatigue crack had been developing
00:07:39
over the last few years.
00:07:40
The fan blade had had been checked regularly during those years but the type of check
00:07:44
that was being used had not been able to detect this small crack.
00:07:48
This crack had now developed far enough
00:07:50
for the entire base of the fan blade to fail and detach from the fan disc.
00:07:55
It did so in the six o'clock position so facing straight down and it impacted
00:08:00
the containment ring just as it was designed to do
00:08:03
and then part of this fan blade started moving forward.
00:08:08
But when it impacted the containment ring and also the forward part of the D-duct assembly,
00:08:13
it created a shockwave and this shockwave cracked
00:08:16
the attachment ring that held part of the D-duct assembly in place.
00:08:22
It also caused extensive cracking in the latches that was holding
00:08:26
the engine cowling in place that caused latches to fail,
00:08:30
which made the cowling open
00:08:33
and because of the air loads, rip off the front of the engine.
00:08:37
As this happened, the right part of the engine cowling, that's the inboard part flew up
00:08:42
over the wing and impacted the side of the aircraft next to Row 14.
00:08:47
When it did so, it caused the inner and the outer pane on the window on Row 14
00:08:52
to fail and depart the aircraft and this in turn caused a massive depressurization
00:08:57
of the passenger cabin.
00:08:59
So what is a depressurization now?
00:09:01
Well, all aircraft that are designed to fly at higher altitudes have
00:09:05
what we call pressurized cabins.
00:09:08
This means that we take air, generally speaking from bleed air ducts
00:09:12
from the engines and we push it into the passenger cabin to try
00:09:16
to maintain air pressure inside of the cabin that is equal
00:09:20
or just a little bit lower than what it is on the surface.
00:09:23
That's because, us humans, we cannot absorb oxygen through our lungs
00:09:27
if the air pressure is too low, but this also means that there will be
00:09:30
a huge difference in pressure from the outside of the aircraft
00:09:34
to the inside of the aircraft.
00:09:35
Generally, this is maintained by the pressure vessels
00:09:38
so all the aircraft body, passenger cabin that you're sitting inside, the cockpit,
00:09:43
all the way back to the aft pressure bulkhead
00:09:46
will maintain this pressure difference.
00:09:48
And the difference can be as high as eight pounds per square inch, psi.
00:09:52
But if there is a rupture to the pressure vessel,
00:09:56
in this case by window number 14,
00:09:58
well then the air pressure will try to equalize itself.
00:10:01
This means that we'll go from the high pressure inside of the pressure cabin
00:10:05
to the low pressure outside.
00:10:07
This will cause a lot of air to rush towards where the rupture is
00:10:11
and that might bring with it anything that is not strapped down
00:10:14
during a few seconds while the pressure is equalizing.
00:10:18
In this case, there was a female passenger seated next to the window on Row 14.
00:10:22
And as this depressurization happened, and the air rushed towards the now broken window
00:10:28
of Row 14, she got pushed out by all of that air.
00:10:32
Her arms and her upper body exited the aircraft
00:10:34
but fortunately, she still had her seatbelt on
00:10:37
which meant that she was not pulled out completely.
00:10:40
In the cockpit, this combination of an engine failure and a rapid depressurization
00:10:44
caused some immediate problems.
00:10:46
At time 11:03:33 seconds, you can hear on the cockpit voice recorder
00:10:50
an increase in background noise.
00:10:52
That's likely the engine failure surge and then the subsequent depressurization of the cabin.
00:10:59
Following that, the flight data recorder indicates
00:11:01
that the aircraft started an uncommanded bank towards the left,
00:11:05
and also some severe vibrations.
00:11:07
And those vibrations are likely coming from both the engine which is now failing.
00:11:12
But the fact that the engine is also breaking up means that there's going
00:11:15
to be an increase of drag on the left-hand side.
00:11:19
And that's likely also what's causing this sudden roll.
00:11:22
Six seconds later, the sound of the cabin altitude warning
00:11:26
can be heard on the cockpit voice recorder.
00:11:28
This means that the cabin altitude is now over 10,000 feet.
00:11:32
And the reason that the cabin altitude warning goes off
00:11:35
from the exceed 10,000 feet is because above 10,000 feet, the human body starts
00:11:40
to have problems taking up oxygen and we start to potentially experience
00:11:44
signs of hypoxia.
00:11:46
Because there is now a hole in the cabin, this cabin altitude is going to equalize
00:11:51
with the outside pressure, which means that the cabin altitude
00:11:54
will very soon become the same as the aircraft's altitude.
00:11:57
And that's an issue because they're still at 32,000 feet.
00:12:01
And at 32,000 feet, the time of useful consciousness,
00:12:04
as in the time where we have control over our muscles and body and mind
00:12:10
is going to be significantly shorter.
00:12:12
That's why it's so important for you if you are traveling as passengers
00:12:16
that if the oxygen masks fall down,
00:12:18
you put them on and start breathing as soon as possible
00:12:21
because that will give you access to oxygen, which will stave off the effects of hypoxia.
00:12:26
In the cockpit, this means that the pilots are now facing two very serious conditions at once.
00:12:32
First, you have the engine failure
00:12:34
and the controllability issues that that's causing with the uncommanded roll towards the left.
00:12:39
Second of all, they have an indication of a rapid depressurization,
00:12:43
which will require them to very quickly get their own oxygen masks on to make sure
00:12:47
that they stay focused and to initiate communication.
00:12:52
It's very important in a situation like this that the pilot flying continues to fly the aircraft,
00:12:56
which is exactly what they did in this situation.
00:12:59
The maximum roll recorded was about left-hand 41 degrees bank
00:13:04
before the first officer took control back and rolled the aircraft wings level.
00:13:10
About one minute and 11 seconds after the failure, the first noises indicating
00:13:14
that the crew was donning their oxygen masks
00:13:17
can be heard on the cockpit voice recorder.
00:13:19
At the same time, air traffic control is trying to contact the aircraft
00:13:22
to give them further clearance but the only thing that air traffic control
00:13:25
can hear is static noises on the frequency.
00:13:29
This is likely because when you put your oxygen mask on on a 737,
00:13:34
in order to communicate especially on the older models on the NG fleet,
00:13:38
you have to go down onto the audio control panel,
00:13:40
which is on the central pedestal and switch from the boom position
00:13:44
to the mask position.
00:13:45
When you do that, you can start to transmit
00:13:47
from the mic that's inside of the mask.
00:13:50
As soon as the captain gets her audio control panel sorted,
00:13:53
then she can start to communicate,
00:13:55
she calls up air traffic control which is New York Center at this time.
00:13:58
And she tells them that, "Southwest 1380,
00:14:01
we have an engine fire descending."
00:14:03
This is done rapidly followed by her calling we have single engine, we are descending,
00:14:08
engine fire, engine number one.
00:14:10
Now there is no indication in the final report that there was actually a fire warning going off.
00:14:17
But there is always a possibility when a severe failure like this happens
00:14:21
to an engine that you might get a momentarily spurious fire bell going off
00:14:26
that could go for only a few seconds.
00:14:28
It's not shown in the final report that that was the case but that could explain
00:14:32
why the captain assumed that there was a fire they were having.
00:14:36
Air traffic control comes back in and responds to this saying,
00:14:39
"Where would you like to go, which airport?"
00:14:41
To which the captain responds, "Just give us a vector to your closest."
00:14:46
At this point, the aircraft is descending through 28,000 feet and it should be pointed out
00:14:50
that there hasn't been any PA made
00:14:52
to the cabin crew about the emergency descent at this point.
00:14:56
Generally, the first thing that the pilots have to do when they decide
00:14:59
that an emergency descent is needed, is to switch on to the PA and call out an emergency
00:15:06
to descend to the cabin crew, that's because we need them to be aware
00:15:09
so they can sit down and put their masks on as well.
00:15:13
But it's perfectly understandable that in a situation like this,
00:15:16
where you have two severe failures that are affecting them at the same time
00:15:20
that, you know, some things will come out of order slightly.
00:15:25
The most important thing here is that the crew have the aircraft under control,
00:15:30
and they have initiated the emergency descent to get down into breathable air.
00:15:34
The crew is now starting to discuss where they want to go.
00:15:38
They get a vector from air traffic control towards the closest geographical airport,
00:15:42
which is Harrisburg but they also need to descend.
00:15:45
They're at 28,000 feet.
00:15:47
And it will take approximately 50 to 60 nautical miles
00:15:51
to descend from 28,000 feet, even if you're doing an emergency descent.
00:15:56
So the first officer is looking at his charts now.
00:16:00
And he says that maybe we should go towards Philadelphia.
00:16:04
Philadelphia is a good choice because it is a Southwest destination,
00:16:08
which means that they have support on the ground there.
00:16:11
It is also a slightly bigger airport, which has better firefighting equipment,
00:16:15
which could be a benefit
00:16:17
if this would go much, much worse from the situation they're already in.
00:16:22
The captain agrees that Philadelphia is probably the better destination to go towards.
00:16:26
So they relay that information to air traffic control.
00:16:29
At time 11:05:32, the captain is heard asking the first officer
00:16:34
if he has the aircraft under control.
00:16:36
The first officer responds that he does.
00:16:38
And the captain then starts looking for the Quick Reference Handbook to start going
00:16:42
through the non-normal checklists that they have to cover.
00:16:45
Now, it's quite tricky in a situation like this even to know which checklist you want to start with.
00:16:51
Because, generally speaking, we only deal with one failure at a time.
00:16:55
And in this case, this crew is facing multiple failures
00:16:59
and multiple serious failures.
00:17:01
The captain decides to go
00:17:02
for the engine fire, severe damage and separation non-normal checklist.
00:17:06
And that's something that I fully and wholeheartedly agree with,
00:17:09
because they could also go for the rapid depressurization and emergency descent.
00:17:14
But they both know that the aircraft is descending,
00:17:17
that they have their masks on and that they can communicate,
00:17:20
which are the most important bits of that checklists, so even though
00:17:23
they might miss things, like for example,
00:17:25
talking to the cabin crew in this case,
00:17:27
they know that the most important things are done.
00:17:29
She wants to go in to try to secure the engine
00:17:32
which I completely understand.
00:17:34
Before the captain starts actually working through the checklist, she also reaches over,
00:17:38
switches on the PA and makes a very quick PA telling
00:17:41
the passengers and the crew that they're about to divert towards Philadelphia.
00:17:45
This will be the first time that anyone in the back would have heard
00:17:49
from the flight crew in this scenario.
00:17:51
As the aircraft is descending now,
00:17:53
the speed is kept about 280 to 300 knots.
00:17:57
But those of you who have seen my video about how to do an emergency descent know
00:18:01
that the procedure calls for the speed to be increased towards
00:18:05
the maximum structural speed of the aircraft, VMO or MMO, which is 340 knots or Mach 0.8182.
00:18:13
But the crew has decided not to increase the speed.
00:18:15
And that's because they're still feeling a lot of vibrations.
00:18:19
And those vibrations could be indicative of structural issues with the aircraft.
00:18:23
So to keep the speed lower, where the vibrations are still tolerable
00:18:29
is a very good call as well by the crew.
00:18:31
Now before the captain can actually start working through
00:18:34
the non-normal checklist, she gets interrupted by the air traffic control
00:18:37
who asks them to confirm whether or not they are on fire
00:18:40
and what the source of the fire is.
00:18:42
Remember, up until this point, they haven't declared an official mayday.
00:18:46
The captain comes back to air traffic control and clarifies that, "No, we're actually not on fire.
00:18:51
We have an engine failure on engine number one and we're single engine at the moment."
00:18:57
This was then acknowledged by air traffic control who clears them
00:18:59
down to 11,000 feet.
00:19:01
And they also ask them, "What kind of emergency equipment
00:19:03
they need after landing, if any?"
00:19:05
Captain responds with, "Tell them to roll the trucks and it's on the number one side, the captain aside.
00:19:12
After this, they're handed over to the next air traffic controller.
00:19:16
And when the captain checks in with the next air traffic controller,
00:19:19
she also declares an official mayday.
00:19:22
It's worth pointing out here how important it is to actually get
00:19:25
that official mayday, mayday, mayday call in
00:19:28
because when you do that, it is more likely that air traffic control is gonna leave you alone
00:19:34
to do your checklist, for example.
00:19:36
In this transcript, the crew is being constantly interrupted
00:19:40
throughout their descent down towards the airport
00:19:43
by multiple frequency changes and several controllers asking them
00:19:47
how much fuel they have on board, how many people they have on board and so on.
00:19:51
That's one of the things that stood out to me when I read this report that that should possibly
00:19:57
been better coordinated when it came to air traffic control side of it
00:20:00
because what you don't want as a pilot, in a situation with many severe failures like this
00:20:06
is to be constantly interrupted and having to re-explain
00:20:09
the same information over and over again.
00:20:12
At time 11:09:30, the captain decides that she wants to take control of the aircraft.
00:20:17
It is actually is standard operating procedures in Southwest Airlines that in case
00:20:21
of a single engine situation, the captain should do the landing.
00:20:25
So she takes the control from the first officer.
00:20:28
The first officer becomes pilot monitoring.
00:20:30
And now the first officer starts executing the engine fire, severe damage
00:20:34
and separation non-normal checklist.
00:20:36
So what's going on in the back then, in the cabin?
00:20:39
Well, after this quick message from my sponsor, I'll tell you all about it.
00:20:42
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00:20:46
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00:20:49
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00:21:46
In the back of the cabin when the depressurization happened,
00:21:48
the oxygen masks fell down almost immediately.
00:21:52
When the cabin crew saw that that happened,
00:21:53
they made their way back to the jump seats, sat down
00:21:56
and put their own oxygen masks on
00:21:57
which they were instructed to do.
00:21:59
They hadn't heard any call from the pilots initially.
00:22:03
So when things had started to calm down a little bit, the cabin crew went
00:22:07
and got themselves some portable oxygen bottles, and started making their way down through the cabin
00:22:12
to make sure that if there was any injuries, and also to make sure that people
00:22:17
have their masks on properly.
00:22:18
When they got back to about the overwing exit around Row 14,
00:22:22
they saw, to their horror, that a female passenger
00:22:26
had been pushed halfway out through the now open window.
00:22:31
Two of the cabin crew tried to pull her back into the cabin
00:22:34
but because of the enormous on-flow of air,
00:22:37
they just weren't strong enough to do so.
00:22:40
Two male passengers that were sitting in the close proximity volunteered to help out
00:22:44
and together, they managed to pull the passenger back in and laid her down
00:22:50
across the three seats next to Row 14.
00:22:53
The passenger was severely hurt at this point.
00:22:56
So they started looking for people with medical experience.
00:22:59
They found a paramedic and a nurse.
00:23:02
And those two, together, started doing CPR on the passenger.
00:23:06
But this also meant that the passengers that were seated in Row 14,
00:23:10
next to the hurt passenger, they had to move and remember,
00:23:14
this was a completely full flight so there was no spare seats available.
00:23:17
These passengers they moved towards the back of the cabin and sat down
00:23:21
on the crew jump seats instead.
00:23:23
Back in the cockpit, at time 11:10:14, the crew was handed over once again
00:23:28
to the now Philadelphia Approach Controller.
00:23:31
Philadelphia Approach Controller, again, asked the crew how many people there were on board,
00:23:35
how much fuel they had left, and then they got descent clearance down to 6,000 feet.
00:23:41
The crew now also started to get vectors to align them with final approach.
00:23:45
And when the first officer realized this, he turned over to the captain and said,
00:23:48
"Um, we-we're gonna to need a few minutes, right?
00:23:51
To complete a few checklists?"
00:23:53
And the captain responded, "Nope, just keep goin'."
00:23:56
This is actually a quite interesting conversation because when pilots are being trained in the simulator,
00:24:01
we always emphasize how important it is that all of the checklists are being completed
00:24:06
before we go in and land.
00:24:08
But, of course, in reality, the pilots will have to take into consideration
00:24:13
many, many things and in this case, the captain is sitting in an aircraft
00:24:17
which you can feel that it's severely vibrating,
00:24:20
she can also feel that there's more drag than normal on the left-hand side.
00:24:23
She doesn't know how badly damaged her aircraft is, so it is understandable here
00:24:29
that the captain wants to get this aircraft down
00:24:31
on the ground as quickly as possible.
00:24:33
And it's also understandable that the first officer, going back to his training,
00:24:37
wants to complete the engine fire, severe damage and separation checklist
00:24:42
and the following one engine inoperative landing checklist,
00:24:45
which he knows will take a little bit of time to do
00:24:48
but on this occasion, the captain is clearly prioritizing
00:24:51
to get the aircraft down ahead of completing a checklist.
00:24:55
This is a little bit risky on her behalf because by not completing the checklist
00:24:59
and rushing the aircraft in to get it on the ground,
00:25:02
if something subsequently would go wrong before the landing, well then she is basically taking it
00:25:08
upon her own responsibility that that happens.
00:25:11
But this is why it is so hard to be a commander of an aircraft because you have to constantly weigh
00:25:18
the pros and the cons against each other to see what is most important at any given time.
00:25:23
At time 11:12:28, the first officer looks up on his pressurization panel and realizes
00:25:28
that the cabin is now below 10,000 feet.
00:25:32
This is where it's considered safe for them to remove their oxygen masks,
00:25:35
so he removes his own oxygen masks, he initiates communication again with the captain,
00:25:40
and the captain hands the controls back to the first officer for a few seconds
00:25:45
while she removes her own oxygen mask
00:25:47
and then resumes control again.
00:25:49
Air traffic control now clears the aircraft to descend further to 4,000 feet.
00:25:53
And here again, the first officer indicates to the captain that he thinks that they need
00:25:57
a little bit more time to complete their checklists.
00:26:00
The crew asks air traffic control if they can get a very long final,
00:26:03
about 20 to 25 miles but the captain also indicates as she's talking to air traffic control
00:26:09
that she might ask for a shorter final later on.
00:26:12
As they're descending now, the first officer suggests to the captain
00:26:14
that they should talk to the cabin crew.
00:26:17
The captain agrees that's a good idea.
00:26:19
But she's handling the aircraft at the moment so she delegates that to the first officer.
00:26:25
I just wanna point out here that I think that the first officer is doing a great job here.
00:26:30
Reading this accident report, he is assertive, he comes with good suggestions
00:26:34
all the time and they're very pertinent, good smart suggestions.
00:26:38
The first officer now calls the cabin crew.
00:26:41
And initially, there's no response back.
00:26:44
One of the cabin crew later explained that she heard the ding from the cockpit,
00:26:49
she lifted up the interphone, but because of the extreme noise in the cabin,
00:26:54
she couldn't hear what was being said.
00:26:56
A few seconds later, the cabin crew called the cockpit back up again.
00:27:00
And the first officer received a report of what was going on in the cabin.
00:27:04
And this is now the first time that they hear about the damage
00:27:08
to the window on Row 14 and also about the severely injured passenger.
00:27:12
When the first officer is done talking to the cabin crew, he reports to the captain,
00:27:16
and tells her about the passenger and the status in the back.
00:27:19
And this just reinforces the captain's will to get this aircraft down on the ground.
00:27:23
But there are still checklist items that needs to be done.
00:27:27
Most of the engine fire, severe damage and separation checklist has been completed.
00:27:31
The one engine inoperative landing checklist has not been completed.
00:27:35
But here the captain asks to get vectors in for a shorter final,
00:27:40
and she also decides that she wants to land with flaps five instead
00:27:44
of the normal flaps 15 landing you do after an engine failure.
00:27:48
The reasons that she wants to do this
00:27:50
is because she feels that the aircraft is not handling normally.
00:27:53
And she's afraid that if the speed comes back too far,
00:27:56
she might lose control of the aircraft.
00:27:58
Once again, she does not know how her wing looks.
00:28:01
It could be severely damaged.
00:28:03
The transcripts from the cockpit voice recorder indicates
00:28:05
that the first officer is not 100% happy with this.
00:28:09
He says a few times that, "Maybe we should go flaps 15 instead.
00:28:13
Maybe we should do something we know,"
00:28:15
kind of alluding to the fact that they have been practising
00:28:17
to do single engine flap 15 landings in the simulator
00:28:20
while they haven't done that with flaps five.
00:28:23
But, of course, the aptain is the captain and the captain is also the one handling
00:28:26
and feeling the aircraft.
00:28:27
So eventually he settles down on the flaps five and the flaps five speed which is around 180 knots.
00:28:34
They're getting vectors in for Runway 27 Left
00:28:36
in Philadelphia and they decided that they're gonna do a visual approach
00:28:39
rather than an ILS approach.
00:28:41
Surface wind in Philadelphia is 280 degrees 19 gusting 25.
00:28:46
So it's quite windy but more or less straight down the runway.
00:28:49
The crew selects flaps one and then flaps five and then turn on to final.
00:28:54
Now here is where they should be doing the one engine inoperative deferred item landing checklists
00:29:00
which have some additional items to it.
00:29:02
But instead, they go for the normal landing checklist
00:29:05
which will still safeguard that they have the gear down
00:29:08
and the flaps and the speed brake armed and so on.
00:29:10
But because they're doing a visual approach,
00:29:12
they're ending up quite low.
00:29:14
So during a large part of the approach,
00:29:16
they're getting-- - Glide slope, glide slope.
00:29:18
- And even-- - Too low, terrain. Too low, terrain.
00:29:21
- GPWS warnings but they're fully visual.
00:29:24
They can see the runway, they can see the PAPIs.
00:29:26
So it's unlikely that this would pose any real risk to the aircraft.
00:29:29
Behind the cockpit in the cabin, there are some other problems at this point
00:29:33
because the cabin crew has been made aware
00:29:35
by the first officer that they're about to land
00:29:37
in about five minutes.
00:29:38
This means that they've had time to prepare the passengers for an emergency landing.
00:29:43
But the injured passenger is still lying down across Row 14.
00:29:48
This has forced the passengers that were sitting there, remember,
00:29:51
to go back and sit on the crew jump seat.
00:29:54
But that also means that there's nowhere
00:29:56
for the crew who are supposed to sit there to actually sit.
00:29:59
This causes the cabin crew to actually sit down on the floor,
00:30:03
being held down and secured
00:30:05
by passengers at about 10 seconds prior to landing, which is when they start shouting,
00:30:09
"Heads down! Stay down!" which is the standard call
00:30:12
in case of an emergency landing.
00:30:14
At time 11:20:33, Southwest Airlines Flight 1380 lands safely on Runway 27 Left in Philadelphia.
00:30:23
They taxi off on a high speed taxiway,
00:30:25
and they come to stop on the parallel taxiway to the runway,
00:30:30
where they get into contact with air traffic control with the fire chief
00:30:33
who comes up and inspects the aircraft.
00:30:36
They shut the aircraft down and the fire chief tells the crew
00:30:40
that they will be sending out buses and that paramedics is gonna come on board
00:30:44
and take care of the severely injured passenger.
00:30:48
The crew performs the shutdown checklist and crucially, they also remember to pull
00:30:53
the CVR, the cockpit voice recorder, circuit breaker to make sure
00:30:57
that all of the things that I've now told you is being saved for the subsequent investigation.
00:31:04
The captain then goes out and helps the crew to coordinate the disembarkation
00:31:09
of both the injured passenger and the rest of the passengers.
00:31:13
The investigation into this incident showed that the crew's decision to skip certain checklist points
00:31:19
in order to get the aircraft down on the ground was justified given the circumstances.
00:31:23
The investigation team also quickly pinpointed that it was the number 13 fan blade that had detached
00:31:28
and that it had detached in the six o'clock position.
00:31:31
And the fact that it had done so, had caused much more damage through
00:31:35
that shockwave than was anticipated during testing.
00:31:38
This led to the authorities mandating a redesign of the CFM56 cowling and the way
00:31:44
that the containment ring was made, but also that all fan blades that were connected
00:31:48
to CFM56 engines had to be re-evaluated carefully
00:31:53
and checked for fatigue cracking in the dovetail part of the fan blade
00:31:58
before they could continue to operate.
00:32:00
When it came to the cabin crew, there was also recommendations
00:32:03
that they needed to be further trained and instructed in the fact that
00:32:06
it was really, really important that they were seated in their jump seats
00:32:10
during an emergency landing, not only for their own safety,
00:32:13
but also in case that emergency landing led
00:32:15
to an emergency evacuation, they had to be there in order to be able to open the doors.
00:32:20
All in all, it was found that this accident was handled very well by both the pilots,
00:32:24
the cabin crew but also the passengers who were helping out during the incident.
00:32:29
Sadly, the injured female passenger passed away
00:32:32
from the injuries that she sustained as she was outside of the window,
00:32:36
making her the first fatality in commercial aviation in America
00:32:40
for over nine years up until that point.
00:32:47
Now if you wanna see an absolutely crazy story,
00:32:49
where a captain was actually sucked out of the cockpit window during flight,
00:32:54
then check out the video up here.
00:32:55
If you want to support the channel, consider becoming part of my Patreon crew
00:32:59
or buy yourself a t-shirt.
00:33:01
I have quite a few of them.
00:33:03
Have an absolutely fantastic day and I'll see you next time.
00:33:06
Bye-bye.
00:33:07
(calm music)

Description:

The first 1,000 people to use this link will get a 1 month free trial of Skillshare: ​https://www.skillshare.com/membership/checkout?coupon=ytmentourpilot2WK&onboarding_tag=24%2C191%2C39%2C672%2C3&classes=360246820%2C1598778222%2C696154664&classes=360246820%2C2062308616%2C1744818959 On the 17th of April 2018 a Boeing 737-700 from Southwest airlines departed La Guardia Airport in New York for a flight to Dallas. The flight number was Southwest 1380 and it was about to suffer a series of very complex problems including an engine explosion and a rapid decompression at 32 000 feet. In this video I will give you all the background to what happened on this flight as well as the story of how the pilots handled it. I hope you will enjoy it! If you want to support the work I do on the channel, Patreon join my crew and get awesome perks and help me move the channel forward! 👇 👉🏻 https://www.patreon.com/mentourpilot 📲 Join the Mentour Pilot Discord server here! 👉🏻 https://discord.com/invite/JntGWdn I have also created an Amazon page with Aviation books, material and flight simulator stuff that I think you will enjoy! 👉🏻 https://www.amazon.com/shop/mentourpilot Follow my life on instagram and get awesome pictures from the cockpit! 📲 https://www.facebook.com/unsupportedbrowser To find the right HEADSET for YOU, check out BOSE Aviation 👉🏻 https://boseaviation-emea.aero/headsets Artwork in the studio 👉🏻 https://aeroprints.de /? lang = in Get some Awesome Mentour Pilot merch 👉🏻 https://mentour-crew.creator-spring.com/ Below you will find the links to videos and sources used in this episode. Enjoy checking them out! Sources ------------------------------------------------- ---- https://www.ntsb.gov/investigations/AccidentReports/Reports/AAR1903.pdf Philadelphia Control Tower: Xnatedawgx https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PHL_control_tower_between_B_%26_A.jpg Boeing 737 Family: Julien scavini https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page/wiki/Boeing_737#/media/File:B737Familyv1.0.png CFM 56: Bidgee https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/CFM_International_CFM56-7B24E_engine_mounted_on_Qantas_%28VH-XZP%29_Boeing_737-838%28WL%29.jpg Boeing 737-300: Engine https: // en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Boeing_737_Classic#/media/File:Boeing_737-400_Engine.JPG Boeing 737-700 Engine: Bill Spidle http://data3.primeportal.net/hangar/bill_spidle2/737-700/images/737-700_21_of_33 . jpg Aft Pressure Bulkhead: Vedant Agarwal https://www.bangaloreaviation.com/2014/07/pictures-farnborough-air-show-2014-kicks-off-inside-the-boeing-787-9.html Mask: Safran Group https: //www.safran -group.com/sites/default/files/crops/product_image/public/node/5982/2021-07/Pilot%20Oxygen%20Masks%20Julien%20Chambille%20SAO%20SAF2020_0341738-min.png?itok=CdI5iGMX Containement Ring: Rolls Royce https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/91729/4/Ridley_Brayden_201811_MAS_thesis.pdf Damage Engine 1: NTSB https://aerossurance.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/n766sw-swa -b737800-intake.jpg Fan Blade Out Test: Rolls Royce https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3772/10947609496_c795246cc8_o.jpg CFM56: Bidgee https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/CFM_International_CFM56-7B24E_engine_mounted_on_Qantas_%28VH-XZP%29_Boeing_737-838%28WL%29_01.jpg Engine Cowling: upskill.io https://wupskill.io/wupskill.io https://wupskill.io .io -content / uploads / 2018/09 / AdobeStock_98687049.jpeg Engine Open: coastprivate.com https://coastprivate.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/09/Jet-Engines.jpg Captain Tammie Jo Shults: Thomas P . Milne https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tammie_Jo_Shults FO Darren: cmgworldwide.com https://www.cmgworldwide.com/clients/darren-ellisor/ Philadelphia International Airport: Andreas Praefcke https://en.wikipedia.org / wiki/Philadelphia_International_Airport#/media/File:Philadelphia_International_Airport.jpg Captain: aviationjobsearch.com https://www.aviationjobsearch.com/legacy_blog/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/GettyImages-482649646-1-1080x675.jpg Captain 2: BAA Training https://aviationvoice.com/what-kind -of-legal-authorities-does-captain-have-during-the-flight-201908141625 / Crash Damage: DOMINICK REUTER, AFP / GETTY IMAGES https: //eu.usatoday. com / story / news / nation / 2018/04/18 / southwest-emergency-landing-science-air-pressure / 528814002 / CHAPTERS --------------------- ----------- --------------------- 00:00 Intro 00:33 - The Boeing 737-700 01:57 - Fan Blade Testing 03:12- Helix Angles 04:45 - D-Duct Assembly 05:36 - Southwest 1380 06:53 - Catastrophic Failure 08:59 - Depressurization 10:39 - Hard Left Bank 11:22 - Cabin Altitude 13:10 - Masks On 14:10 - Emergency Descent 15:34 - Harrisburg Alternative 17:51 - No Mayday Declared 19:21 - Mayday, Mayday, Mayday 21:47 - A Cabin Rescue 23:23 - Checklists 25:23 - Masks Off 26:12 - Word Reaches the Cockpit 28:02 - Being Cautious 28:34 - Final Approach 29: 29 - Back On The Ground 31:13 - Investigation BXRYOPTZJGD5DHTO

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